In the end, all parties recognized the need to “prevent, minimize and address losses and damages,” but in particular any mention of compensation or liability is excluded.  The Convention also takes up the Warsaw International Loss and Damage Mechanism, an institution that will attempt to answer questions about how to classify, address and co-responsible losses.  UNFCCC (2019) Party groups. unfccc.int/process-and-meetings/parties-non-party-stakeholders/parties/party-groupings. Access july 7, 2019 A dichotomous interpretation of CBDR-RC has led to an international agreement on the Convention and its Kyoto Protocol. Industrialised countries (Annex I) committed to absolute emission reduction or limit targets, while all other countries (excluding Appendix I) did not have such commitments. However, this rigid distinction does not reflect the dynamic diversification between developing countries since 1992, as evidenced by the diversity of contributions to global emissions and economic growth models (Deleuil, 2012). Dubash, 2009). This led Depledge and Yamin (2009, 443) to refer to UnFCCC Schedule I/non-Annex I as the dichotomy and “greatest weakness of the regime.” Negotiators of the agreement said that the INDCs presented at the time of the Paris conference were not sufficient.
concerned that aggregate greenhouse gas emission estimates for 2025 and 2030, resulting from projected national contributions, are not covered by the most cost-effective scenarios at 2oC, but result in a forecast level of 55 gigatonnes. In 2030, and acknowledging “that much greater efforts will be needed to reduce emissions in order to keep the increase in the average global temperature to less than 2 degrees Celsius by reducing emissions to 40 gigatonnes or 1.5 degrees Celsius.”  [Clarification needed] Adaptation issues have been at the forefront of the paris agreement`s organization. Collective long-term adaptation objectives are included in the agreement and countries must be accountable for their adaptation measures, making adaptation a parallel element of the mitigation agreement.  Adaptation objectives focus on improving adaptive capacity, resilience and vulnerability limitation.  Under the Paris Agreement, each country must define, plan and report regularly on its contribution to warming mitigation.  There is no mechanism for a country to set an emission target for a specified date, but any target should go beyond the previous targets.