In 2014, the EU commissioned a Sustainability Impact Assessment (SIA) for a possible DCFTA with Egypt. Egypt is a signatory to several multilateral trade agreements: the parties agree to create stable, favourable and transparent conditions for companies from other parties that invest or attempt to invest in their territory. They grant each other`s investments full protection and security as well as fair and equitable treatment, in accordance with international law. The Parties recognise the importance of promoting cross-border flows of investment and technology (Articles 24 and 25). The provisions on the protection of intellectual property rights (Article 23 and Annex V) concern, inter alia, patents, trademarks, copyrights and geographical indications. They are based on the WTO Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) and provide for a high level of protection taking into account most-favoured-nation principles and national treatment. Meanwhile, the US has negotiated an agreement between Egypt and Israel to establish a “skilled industrial zone” between the two countries, which has angered both Egyptians and their Arab neighbors. In 2009, U.S. and Egyptian trade officials under the Obama administration signed a strategic partnership plan that committed to “a program of enhanced cooperation between the United States and Egypt on economic, trade, and investment issues.” However, there have been no substantial steps towards a bilateral free trade agreement between the two countries.
Describes the bilateral and multilateral trade agreements in which this country participates, including with the United States. Egypt signed a bilateral free trade agreement with Turkey in December 2005 and another with EFTA in 2007. In 2010, it signed a free trade agreement with Mercosur. At the regional level, it is a party to the Agadir, GaFTA and COMESA agreement. Cairo is currently negotiating or considering free trade agreements with Russia, India and Indonesia. The Agreement contains provisions on state trading enterprises, subsidies and anti-dumping measures affecting trade relations between the Parties, as well as safeguard disciplines. Egypt or an EFTA State may suspend a dispute over the interpretation of the rights and obligations under the Agreement to binding arbitration if the consultations do not lead to a settlement. The arbitral tribunal shall decide on the dispute in accordance with the provisions of the Agreement and the usual rules of interpretation of international law (Article 41). In June 2013, the EU and Egypt started discussions on a Comprehensive and Deep Free Trade Agreement. Negotiations on trade in services are currently frozen. It would go beyond the Association Agreement and cover trade in services, government procurement, competition, intellectual property rights and investment protection. The Parties shall endeavour to progressively liberalize and open their markets to each other`s trade in services, in accordance with the provisions of the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) (Articles 26 and 27).
In addition, Egypt has signed several bilateral agreements with Arab countries: Jordan (December 1999), Lebanon (March 1999), Libya (January 1991), Morocco (April 1999), Syria (December 1991) and Tunisia (March 1999). .